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Effects of Aluminium Phosphide on the Behaviour, Haematology, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Biochemistry of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Juvenile

Effects of Aluminium Phosphide on the Behaviour, Haematology, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Biochemistry of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Juvenile

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2


1Department of Zoology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

2Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State

3Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State


*           Corresponding author: gregory.odo@unn.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT

Aluminium phosphide is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide in agriculture for pest control in Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of aluminium phosphide on the behaviour, haematology, oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula colouration were observed. Aluminium phosphide elicited effects on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCHC to all exposed concentration of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout the duration of exposure and decrease in the lymphocytes . The results on gill and liver tissues sampled showed concentration and time dependent significant increase (p < 0.005) in the values of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similarly, aluminium phosphide enhanced levels of AST, ALT and ALP as both concentration and time dependent in elevation were recorded when compared to the control. The use of aluminium phosphide in agricultural fields near water bodies should be strongly monitored in view of the observed effects on this catfish fish physiology. The use of aluminium phosphide near water bodies should therefore strongly be monitored so that the health of aquatic organisms will not be impaired.

 

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